Nelson Mandela’s state funeral: In pictures(BBC)

A state funeral for Nelson Mandela in his ancestral home of Qunu ends a week of commemorations for South Africa’s first black president.

Nelson Mandela in laid to restMr Mandela was laid to rest following a short graveside sermon by Bishop Siwa. As a military bugler played the Last Post, followed by Reveille, the pall bearers saluted and then withdrew as did the cameras, allowing the Mandela family a private moment at the graveside.

Video montage: Scenes from the funeral

People take photographs of the casketAs the casket made its way to the burial site some took pictures as it passed.

A flypast took place as the former president was laid to rest. David Dimbleby describes the scene.

The coffin is carried on a gun carriageA marching platoon of the presidential guard, wearing green ceremonial uniforms and carrying rifles with fixed bayonets, escorted the coffin, which had been transferred to a gun carriage, to the burial site.
The coffin of former South African President Nelson Mandela is carried by military personnel At the end of the memorial ceremony a military guard of honour carried Mr Mandela’s coffin, draped in the South African flag, out of the marquee as the audience sang.
General view of the funeral ceremony Nelson Mandela spent much of his childhood in the small, Eastern Cape village of Qunu – a place he chose to return to after his release from prison. The ceremony was held in a marquee constructed for the event.
President Jacob ZumaThe President of South Africa Jacob Zuma began his address in song and was joined by the audience. He went on to say. “We wish today to express two simple words: thank you. Thank you for being everything that we wanted and needed in a leader during a difficult time in our lives. Whilst the long walk to freedom has ended in the physical sense our own journey continues.”
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Nelson Mandela's former wife, hugs South African President Jacob Zuma Following his speech President Zuma received thanks from Mr Mandela’s former wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela.
Former President of Zambia Kenneth Kaunda jogs to the podium To loud applause Kenneth Kaunda, Zambia’s founding president, jogged to the stage to make an unscheduled address. He said: “This great son of the world, not only South African… Madiba showing us the way, whether you’re white, black, yellow or brown, you’re all God’s children. Come together, work together and God will show you the way.”
Nelson Mandela's granddaughter Nandi Mandela Mr Mandela’s granddaughter Nandi recounted stories and anecdotes of her grandfather’s family life. “He was a true servant of the people, his mission in life was to make lives better,” she says. “He truly cared for his family and children.”
The widow of Nelson Mandela Graca Machel wipes her tears Malawian President Joyce Banda paid tribute to Mr Mandela’s former wife Winnie and his widow Graca Machel (pictured). “The love and tolerance you have demonstrated before the whole world at the funeral shows us that you are prepared to continue with his ideals.”
People watch the big screens Outside the marquee people gathered to watch the ceremony on big screens.
Mourners gather outside the home of former South African President Nelson Mandela in  Johannesburg In Johannesburg mourners continued to gather outside the Mr Mandela’s former home…
Children stand in front of a shrine of flowerSome laid flowers and held portraits…
People sing and dance as they gather outside the home of former South African President Nelson Mandela Others sang and danced to celebrate the life of Mr Mandela.
Zulu men perform a traditional dance On a hill overlooking Qunu Zulu men performed a traditional dance.
Anti-apartheid activist and close friend of Nelson Mandela Ahmed KathradaAnti-apartheid activist and close friend of Mr Mandela Ahmed Kathrada made a very moving tribute. He said: “Farewell my dear brother, my mentor, my leader… My life is in a void and I don’t know who to turn to.”
A family watch a television showing the funeral service of former South African President Nelson Mandela at their home in the Soweto, JohannesburgAcross the nation many, like this family in Soweto, watched the funeral service on television.
South African President Jacob Zuma sits between Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (left) and Graca Machel After the two-hour service, Mr Mandela’s Thembu community will conduct a private traditional Xhosa ceremony – including songs and poems about Mr Mandela’s life and his achievements.
The ex-wife of Nelson Mandela, Winnie Mandela Madikizela (left), and the widow of Nelson Mandela, Graca Machel (centre)Nelson Mandela’s former wife Winnie Mandela Madikizela (left) and his widow Graca Machel watched as Mr Mandela’s coffin arrived at the white marquee.
Candles are lit under a portrait of former South African President MandelaInside the marquee, Nelson Mandela’s portrait had been placed behind 95 candles, representing one for each year of the late president’s life.
Former South African President Mbeki is greeted by ANC supporters Former South African President Mbeki was greeted by ANC supporters as he arrived.
South Africa"s archbishop emeritus Desmond Tutu (R) and former South African President Thabo Mbeki greet eachArchbishop Desmond Tutu – a long-time friend of Nelson Mandela – was also there, having earlier said he had cancelled his flight as he had not received an invitation.
Nelson Mandela's eldest daughter Makaziwe MandelaNelson Mandela’s daughter Makaziwe told the BBC earlier in the week that the former president’s family gathered around him to say goodbye in his final hours. She is seen here arriving for the funeral in Qunu.
Shembe priest Michael Notychanga prayed in the direction of the home of former Mr MandelaShembe priest Michael Notychanga prayed in the direction of the home of former Mr Mandela.
US talk show host Oprah Winfrey, her husband Stedman Graham (left) and English businessman Richard Branson Amongst those attending were US talk show host Oprah Winfrey and her husband Stedman Graham and English businessman Richard Branson (right).
South African National Defence Forces fire ceremonial cannons as the body of Nelson Mandela is brought from the family home to the funeral tentThe South African National Defence Forces fired ceremonial cannons as the body of Nelson Mandela was taken from the family home to the funeral marquee.
The coffin arrived with a military escortThe coffin arrived with a military escort.
The casket of Nelson Mandela is brought in a military parade on a gun carriage from the family home to the funeral tentThe gun carriage carrying Mr Mandela’s body began its journey to the marquee, signalling the start of singing, and speeches reflecting on the life and achievements of Mr Mandela.
Children wait outside as they prepare to watch the funeralChildren waited outside their home for the cortege to pass.
Members of the South African Navy line the road from the Mandela family house to his burial site in QunuMembers of the South African Navy lined the road from the Mandela family house to his burial site in Qunu.
A girl sits outside the Mandela House Museum in the Soweto Since his death on 5 December aged 95, many more have paid their respects. Mr Mandela has been hailed as “a giant of history” for his fight against apartheid.
Villagers walk by foot on a dirt road to a public viewing point near the ancestral home of former South African President Nelson Mandela, to take part in his funeral ceremony in QunuEarly on Sunday morning people made their way to Qunu.
People pose with a candle in memory of late South African former president Nelson Mandela outside his home in Johannesburg Following a week of commemorations Nelson Mandela, South Africa’s first black leader, is to be buried in his ancestral home in Qunu. Across South Africa people lit candles in his memory on the eve of the funeral. 

Nelson Mandela buried at Qunu ancestral home

John Simpson reports on the funeral service.

Nelson Mandela’s body has been laid to rest in a family plot, after political and religious leaders paid tribute to South Africa’s first black president at a state funeral service.

His widow, Graca Machel, and President Jacob Zuma were present for the private, traditional Xhosa burial at Mr Mandela’s ancestral home in Qunu.

Mr Zuma had earlier told the larger funeral service that South Africans had to take his legacy forward.

Mr Mandela died on 5 December aged 95.

The last of 10 days of commemorations for Mr Mandela began with his coffin being taken on a gun carriage from his home to a giant marquee where his portrait hung behind 95 candles – each representing a year of his life.

South African military helicopters staged a fly-past as Mr Mandela's coffin was interredSouth African military helicopters staged a fly-past as Mr Mandela’s coffin was interred
The coffin of Nelson Mandela is carried by military honour guardEarlier some 4,500 people – including foreign dignitaries – attended the state funeral
President Jacob Zuma sat between Nelson Mandela's widow Graca Machel and his ex-wife Winnie Madikizela-MandelaPresident Zuma sat between Mr Mandela’s widow Graca Machel and his ex-wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela

The coffin, draped in the South African flag, was placed beneath a lectern where speakers paid their tributes.

Some guests sang and danced to celebrate Mr Mandela’s life as the service began.

Analysis

image of Pumza FihlaniPumza FihlaniBBC News, Qunu

South Africa’s “father of the nation” is back with his people in Qunu, his body now resting in this remote village. The former statesman was buried after former comrades, African leaders and his family spoke movingly of their love for Nelson Mandela and what he had taught them.

His granddaughter Nandi described him as a man with a sense of humour, saying the family would miss his laughter and smile. It was a sombre ceremony, a marked departure from the singing and celebration we had seen all week.

Mr Mandela’s widow, Graca Machel, sat dazed, looking into the distance throughout the ceremony. Next to her sat President Jacob Zuma and Madiba’s ex-wife, Winnie, who also seemed grief-stricken.

A few hundred metres from the marquee where the ceremony was held, hundreds of villagers watched the proceedings from a large screen, on a hill overlooking Mr Mandela’s house.

Before the coffin was lowered into the ground, jets took to the blue skies above Qunu, in salute of democratic South Africa’s first president.

The crowd watched and very little was said. They waved and some screamed. “Who will be our father?” cried one woman. And that is the question on many people’s minds here – who will now be the father of this nation?

  • Tears, laughter and togetherness

After the national anthem, the service heard from a family spokesman, Chief Ngangomhlaba Matanzima, who thanked the army medical team that had treated Mr Mandela before he died.

“A great tree has fallen, he is now going home to rest with his forefathers. We thank them for lending us such an icon.”

Close friend Ahmed Kathrada, told mourners he had lost an “elder brother” who was with him for many years in prison on Robben island.

Mr Kathrada’s voice filled with emotion as he spoke of the difficulty of recent months and of how he had held his friend’s hand the last time he saw him in hospital.

“Farewell my dear brother, my mentor, my leader,” he said.

Two grandchildren then addressed the congregation. Ndaba who read an obituary, and Nandi, who spoke fondly of her grandfather as a disciplinarian.

“We shall miss you… your stern voice when you are not pleased with our behaviour. We shall miss your laughter,” said Nandi.

Listening to the tributes were Graca Machel and Mr Mandela’s second wife, Winnie-Madikizela Mandela. They sat either side of President Jacob Zuma.

Both women were praised for their love and tolerance, in an address by Malawi’s President Joyce Banda.

African National Congress members, veterans of the fight against apartheid and foreign dignitaries – including several African presidents and the Prince of Wales – were among the guests.

Archbishop Desmond Tutu – a long-time friend of Nelson Mandela – was also there, as was US talk-show host Oprah Winfrey.

Grandson Ndaba Mandela reads an obituary

While the service took place, a 21-gun salute sounded far away in Pretoria.

President Zuma, who was booed at last week’s stadium commemoration in Soweto, led the service in song before giving his funeral oration.

It had been been a long and painful week, he said.

“Whilst the long walk to freedom has ended in the physical sense, our own journey continues.”

An unexpected contribution came from Kenneth Kaunda, 89-year-old former president of Zambia, who lightened the tone of the proceedings by jogging to the stage.

President Zuma South Africa would continue to rise

He recounted failed appeals he had made to two South African leaders, John Vorster and PW Botha, for the release of Mr Mandela and his ANC colleagues from prison.

As the political tributes overran, the organisers made an unsuccessful attempt to cut back the religious element of the service.

The master of ceremonies, ANC Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa, had earlier explained that burial had to take place at midday, in line with the traditions of Mr Mandela’s Thembu tribe in Qunu.

Xhosa funeral rituals

  • A family elder talks to “the body’s spirit”
  • The coffin is covered with a leopard’s or lion’s skin
  • An ox is slaughtered and eaten on the day
  • Another ox to be slaughtered next year to mark the end of mourning

“A person of Mandela’s stature is meant to be laid to rest when the sun is at its highest and when the shadow is at its shortest.”

The BBC’s Pumza Fihlani says it was a fitting send-off for a man widely seen as the “father of the nation”.

As the state funeral drew to a close, military pallbearers carried the coffin to the grave site for the more private ceremony.

There, a chaplain spoke of Mr Mandela achieving ultimate freedom at the end of a “truly long walk”.

George Bizos, another close friend who was part of Mr Mandela’s legal team at his 1964 Rivonia trial, was among those who attended the private burial.

“We have known each other for 65 years. Now he is gone,” he said.

Three helicopters trailing South African flags then flew over the scene followed by six jets. TV pictures of the grave site came to a close.

British entrepreneur Richard Branson, who attended the burial, said Desmond Tutu told mourners Nelson Mandela “doesn’t need a stone – he is in all of our hearts”.

The former archbishop was at the private ceremony despite conflicting statements on Friday about whether he had been invited.

Xhosa women in traditional dress wait for the coffin to pass in Qunu (14 Dec 2013)Nelson Mandela’s funeral was due to be conducted according to the traditions of the Xhosa people, from which he comes

According to tradition, the Thembu community were holding a private traditional Xhosa ceremony – including songs and poems about Mr Mandela’s life and his achievements.

An ox was due to be slaughtered and a family elder was to stay near the coffin, to talk “to the body’s spirit”.

‘Sad but happy’

The burial brought to an end more than a week of mourning across South Africa.

Tens of thousands of people flocked to the FNB stadium for a public memorial on Tuesday, to hear President Barack Obama and other international leaders pay tribute to Mr Mandela.

Over the next three days, at least 100,000 people saw the former president’s body lying in state in Pretoria. Thousands more had to be turned away.

On Saturday, Mr Mandela’s coffin was flown from Waterkloof airbase in Pretoria to Mthatha in the Eastern Cape.

A military guard of honour then took the casket on a 20-mile (32km) route to Qunu, where Mr Mandela had wanted to spend his final days.

Crowds waving flags and cheering and singing lined the route, which culminated at the Mandela homestead.

 People prepare to watch the funeral in Qunu. Photo: 15 December 2013Many people walked to watch the funeral on the Mandela family’s property in Qunu
The coffin of Nelson Mandela on a gun carriage escorted by military honour guardNelson Mandela always said he wanted to be buried in his childhood home
Candles illuminate a portrait of Nelson Mandela in Qunu. Photo: 15 December 2013Nelson Mandela’s smiling portrait welcomed the guests inside the giant marquee in Qunu
President Jacob Zuma said South Africans would continue to build on Mr Mandela's legacyPresident Zuma said South Africans would continue to build on Mr Mandela’s legacy
Mandela funeral map